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Current peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing methods in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be classified into three groups: flooding-based, advertisement-based, and social contact-based. The first two groups of methods can easily have high overhead and low scalability. They are mainly developed for connected MANETs, in which end-to-end connectivity among nodes is ensured. The third group of methods adapts to the opportunistic nature of disconnected MANETs but fails to consider the social interests (i.e., contents) of mobile nodes, which can be exploited to improve the file searching efficiency. In this paper, we propose a P2P content based file sharing system, namely SPOON, for disconnected MANETs. The system uses an interest extraction algorithm to derive a node’s interests from its files for content-based file searching. For efficient file searching, SPOON groups common-interest nodes that frequently meet with each other as communities. It takes advantage of node mobility by designating stable nodes, which have the most frequent contact with community members, as community coordinators for intra community searching, and highly mobile nodes that visit other communities frequently as community ambassador for intercommunity searching. An interest-oriented file searching scheme is proposed for high file searching efficiency. Additional strategies for file prefetching, querying completion, and loop prevention, and node churn consideration are discussed to further enhance the file searching efficiency. We first tested our system on the GENI Orbit testbed with a real trace and then conducted event-driven experiment with two real traces and NS2 simulation with simulated disconnected and connected MANET scenarios. The test results show that our system significantly lowers transmission cost and improves file searching success rate compared to current methods.


In MANETs consisting of digital devices, nodes are constantly moving, forming disconnected MANETs with opportunistic node encountering. Such transient network connections have posed a challenge for the development of P2P MANETs. Traditional methods supporting P2P MANETs are either flooding-based or advertisement-based. The former methods rely on flooding for file searching. However, they lead to high overhead in broadcast. In the latter methods, nodes advertise their available files, build content tables, and forward files according to these tables. But they have low search efficiency because of expired routes in the content tables caused by transient network connections. Also, advertising can lead to high overhead. Some researchers further proposed to utilize cache/replication to enhance data dissemination/access efficiency in disconnected MANETs. However, nodes in these methods passively wait for contents that they are interested in rather than actively search files, which may lead to a high search delay.


  • It only for the dissemination of information to subscribers. They are not specifically designed for file searching.
  • They fail to take into account some properties of social networks.


We propose an interest-oriented file searching and retrieval scheme that utilizes an interest-oriented routing algorithm (IRA) and above three components. Based on P3, IRA selects forwarding node by considering the probability of meeting interest keywords rather than nodes. The file searching scheme has two phases: Intra- and intercommunity searching. In the former, a node first queries nearby nodes, then relies on coordinator to search the entire home community. If it fails, the intercommunity searching uses an ambassador to send the query to a matched foreign community. A discovered file is sent back through the search path or the IRA if the path breaks. SPOON is novel in that it leverages social network properties of both node interest and movement pattern. First, it classifies common-interest and frequently encountered nodes into social communities. Second, it considers the frequency at which a node meets different interests rather than different nodes in file searching. Third, it chooses stable nodes in a community as coordinators and highly mobile nodes that travel frequently to foreign communities as ambassadors. Such a structure ensures that a query can be forwarded to the community of the queried

file quickly. SPOON also incorporates additional strategies for file prefetching, querying-completion and loop-prevention, and node churn consideration to further enhance file searching efficiency.


  • It employs community construction algorithm to build communities to enable efficient file retrieval.
  • It is an efficient technique to transfer files quickly.



üProcessor                  -        Pentium –IV

üSpeed                        -        1.1 Ghz

üRAM                         -        512 MB(min)

üHard Disk                 -        40 GB

üKey Board                -        Standard Windows Keyboard

üMouse                       -        Two or Three Button Mouse

üMonitor                     -        LCD/LED


  • Operating system:         Windows XP
  • Coding Language:         Java
  • Data Base             :         MySQL
  • Tool                     :         Net Beans IDE


Kang Chen, Haiying Shen and Haibo Zhang, “Leveraging Social Networks for P2P Content-Based File Sharing in Disconnected MANETs”IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2014.

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